Semiotic studies, from PhD bibliography

Here’s a snippet of my PhD bibliography, with a specific focus on studies that use semiotic or framing analyses for their method, or are particularly interesting for multimodal investigation. This list might be of use to those of you who are interested in the field, or are looking to explore further studies about multimodality.

The following relates specifically to my field of interest: (South) African elections on news media.

  • Aalberg, T; Strömbäck, J; De Vreese, CH. 2011. The framing of politics as strategy and game: a review of concepts, operationalizations, and key findings, in Journalism 13(2): pp162-178
  • Benoit, WL; Stein, KA; & Hansen, GL. 2004. How newspapers cover presidential nomination acceptance addresses, in Newspaper research journal 25(3): pp83-89
  • Bertelsen, E. 1996. Selling change: advertisements for the 1994 South African election, in African Affairs 95(379): 225-252
  • Bucy, EP & Grabe, ME. 2007. Taking television seriously: a sound and image bite analysis of presidential campaign coverage, 1992-2004, in Journal of Communication 57 (2007): pp652-675
  • Cushion, S & Sambrook, R. 2015. How television news let the Tories fight the election on their own terms. The Guardian 15 May 2015. [O]. Available: Accessed on 10 September 2015
  • Cushion, S; Thomas, R; & Ellis, O. 2015. The mediatisation of the 2nd order elections and party launches: UK television news reporting of the 2014 EU campaign, in International Journal of Communication 9(2015): pp1523-1543
  • Fiske, J & Hartley, J. 1978. Reading Television. London: Methuen
  • Geersema-Sligh, M. 2015. Framing of Jacob Zuma and polygamy in Die Burger 2008-2013, in Comminucatio 41(2): pp175-191
  • Glasgow Media Group, 1976. Bad News. London: Routledge.
  • Glasgow Media Group, 1980. More bad news. London: Routledge.
  • Glasgow Media Group, 1982. Really bad news. London: Routledge.
  • Grabe, ME. 1996. The South African Broadcasting Corporation’s coverage of the 1987 and 1989 elections: the matter of visual bias, in Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 40 (2)
  • Grabe, ME & Bucy, EP. Image bite politics: news and the visual framing of elections. Oxford University Press
  • Holmes, CE & Shoup, BD. 2013. Framing the democratic narrative: local and national voting patterns in South Africa, in Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 51(1): pp56-75
  • Iyengar, S. 1991. Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago University Press
  • Iyengar, S & McGrady, JA. 2007. Media politics: a citizen’s guide. New York: WW Norton
  • Kalyango, Y. 2011. Critical discourse analysis of CNN International’s coverage of Africa, in Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 55(2): pp160-179
  • Kress, G. & Van Leeuwen, T. 1996. Reading images: the grammar of visual design. Routledge: London
  • Kress, G. & Van Leeuwen, T. 1998. Front pages: the critical analysis of newspaper layout, in Approaches to media discourse. Edited by A Bell and P Garrett. Blackwell: Oxford. Pp186-219
  • Kress, G. & Van Leeuwen, T. 2001. Multimodal discourse. Arnold: London
  • Montgomery, M. 2007. The discourse of broadcast news: a linguistic approach. London: Routledge
  • Myer, G; Klak, T; Koehl, T. 1996. The inscription of difference: news coverage of the conflicts in Rwanda and Bosnia, in Political Geography 15(1): pp21-46
  • Norris, P. 1995. The restless searchlight: network news framing of the post-cold war world, in Political Communication 12(4): pp 357-370
  • Onyebadi, U & Oyedeji, T. 2011. Newspaper coverage of post political election violence in Africa: an assessment of the Kenyan example, in Media, War, and Conflict 4(3): pp215-230
  • Reta, MC. 2000. US media coverage of the 1994 elections in South Africa, in International Communication Gazette 62(6): pp523-536
  • Scheufele, DA. 1999. Framing as a theory of media effects, in Journal of Communication Winter 1999: 103-122
  • Schieß, R. 2007. A visual analysis of election night TV programs across cultures, in Political Discourse in the media: cross-cultural perspectives. Edited by A Fetzer & GE Lauerbach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Pp276-313
  • Scollon, R. 2005. Discourse and technology. Multimodal discourse analysis. Georgetown University Press.
  • Sisk, T. 1994. A US perspective of South Africa’s 1994 election, in Election 94. The campaigns, results, and future prospects. Edited by A Reynolds. Claremont: David Phillips: pp144-158
  • Spurr, D. 1994. The rhetoric of empire. Durham: Duke University Press
  • Turkington, T. 1997. “Reporting a “miracle”: How The New York Times The Times of London and The Star of Johannesburg covered South Africa’s founding democratic election.” Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers. Paper 5052
  • Van Dijk, T. 2009. News and ideology. In Handbook of Journalism Studies. Edited by K Wahl-Jorgensen & T Hanitzsch. London: Routledge
  • Windrich, E. 1994. Media coverage of the Angolan elections, in A Journal of Opinion 1(22): pp19-23
  • Woo, J. 1996. Television news discourse in political transition: framing the 1987 and 1992 Korean presidential elections, in Political Communication 13: pp68-80


This list relates specifically to the field of semiotics.


  • Barthes, R. 1968. Elements of semiology. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Berger, AA. 2004. Media analysis methods. London: Sage.
  • Bignell, J. 2002. Media semiotics: introduction. 2nd Ed. Manchester University Press.
  • Chandler, D. 1994a. Semiotics for beginners. [O]. Available: Accessed on 19 April 2014.
  • Chandler, D. 1994b. Grammar for film and TV. [O]. Available: Accessed on 1 December 2010.
  • Chandler, D. 1994c. Notes on the construction of reality in TV news programmes. [O]. Available: Accessed 5 September 2015
  • Chandler, D. 1994d. Criticisms of semiotic analysis. [O]. Available: Accessed 5 September 2015
  • Dueck, S. 1995. The genre of television news: grammar, rhetoric, and the politics of representation. Simon Fraser University: MA Thesis.
  • Entman, R. 1991. Framing US coverage of international news: contrasts in narratives of the KAL and Iran air incidents, in Journal of Communication 41(4): 6-27.
  • Fiske, J. 1987. Television culture. London: Routledge
  • Foss, SK. 2005. Theory of Visual Rhetoric, in Handbook of Visual Communication: Theory, Methods, and Media. Eds. K Smith, S Moriarty, G Barbatsis, and K Kenney. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum pp 141-52.
  • Fourie, PJ. 2007. Media Studies: media history, media and society. 2nd edition. Cape Town: Juta
  • Hall, S. 1973 (1980). Encoding/Decoding. In: Culture, Media, Language. London: Hutchinson. 51-61.
  • Hartley, J. 1992. Tele-ology. Studies in television. London: Routledge
  • Jones, B. 2016. Television news and the digital environment: a triadic multimodal approach for analysing moving image media, in African Journalism Studies 37(2)
  • Machin, D & Mayr, A. 2012. How to do critical discourse analysis. London: Sage.
  • McLuhan, M. 1964. Understanding media. New York: Signet Books.
  • McQuail, D. 1987. Mass Communication Theory: an introduction. 2nd Edition. London: Sage
  • Montgomery, M. 2007. The discourse of broadcast news. London: Routledge
  • Wodak, R. 2011. Critical Discourse Analysis, in The continuum companion to discourse analysis. Edited by K Hyland and B Paltridge. London: Continuum Books.
  • Zellizer, B. 1990. Where is the author in American TV news? On the construction and presentation of proximity, authorship, and journalistic authority, in Semiotica. 80 [1-2] pp: 37–48

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